Consequences of climate change on human mobility and the most vulnerable States

Maida Zago
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In the last decades the phenomenon of migration increased and the factors that cause these movements have different nature. One of thiese causes is related to climate change which involve as consequence a change of the environment (for example the desertification or the decrease of the quantity of fresh water). The scenario that is taking shape is the one of a climate that has relevant effects in people's lives and in their decision to move to other lands. The climate change cannot be the only cause of migration, but it can intensify economic, social or political problems which are still present in a specific geographic area or it can become the critical factor. It is because of this reason that climate change must be taken into account when you decide to address the attention to the causes that drive people to move to more inviting areas. When the main factor of migration is the one connected to the climate, you talk about environmental migrants, identifying with this expression those people who choose to move permanently or temporarily because of significant changes in their environment that have negative consequences on their life conditions. The issue of environmental migrants is complex, both in terms of the difficulty of an accurate evaluation of the phenomenon and because legally their refugee status is not recognized in the international law. To be most affected by climate change are certainly the poorest people and States with less economic resources to be invested in projects that would help to adapt the environment to human needs. These States have generally had a minor impact in the environmental pollution that caused an increase of the temperature of our planet. Nevertheless, they are the first to be hit by the effects of the climate change. The developed countries finance programs in these states also inside the environmental field, but that action is not enough. It is important to understand how to act towards this climate change, and as consequence the environmental change, in order to avoid that human activity could cause irreparable damages to the Earth. This is the main goal of the COP21 in Paris: states must understand they have to reduce their annual emissions of greenhouse gases. Before the meeting, each country submitted a detailed plan (specific to its own state), in order to be more responsible to take real commitments to reduce the environmental impact of greenhouse gas emissions. This paper presents a path that has the climate change as common denominator with the aim of understanding the importance of the Earth as the common home for the humanity. We have to take note of the actual changes and untertake together in order to face the consequences connected to the environmental change around us. It is also important to be aware of the fact that human activities and political choices are essential in order to analyse and understand the effects of climate change.