Europe and Africa

Europe is expected to be affected by a wide range of impacts of climate change, including more frequent and intense heavy precipitation events, more frequent heat waves, retreating glaciers and changing terrestrial ecosystems. As the frequency of heat waves has increased in Europe, heat-related health risks and mortality rates have been rising especially in urban heat islands. In Central and Eastern Europe, summer rainfall is projected to decrease, leading to higher water stress and increase in peatland fires. In Northern Europe, more frequent winter floods, endangered ecosystems, and ground destabilization are foreseen. In the Mediterranean and Southern Europe, higher temperatures and drought are predicted to reduce water availability and crop productivity as well as to increase the risk of wildfires.

Climate change is expected to challenge food and water security in Sub-Saharan Africa, endangering lives and livelihoods. As precipitation patterns shift, yields from rain-fed agriculture are predicted to fall and compounded stress on water resources is foreseen to be intensified with escalated risks of flooding, drought and desertification. Africa, along with Asia, is urbanizing faster than any other region in the world. Rapid urbanization combined with overall population growth push socio-economically vulnerable populations into living in the most environmentally hazardous and densely populated areas, thus increasing the potential number of people affected and displaced by natural disasters.