The environment has always been a driver of migration, as people flee to survive natural disasters or, faced with harsh and deteriorating environmental conditions, move to seek opportunities elsewhere. Climate change is expected to exacerbate sudden- and slow-onset disasters and gradual environmental degradation. |
The frequency of natural and human-induced disasters has increased significantly over the past decade. Over 39,000 incidents involving casualties have resulted in the deaths of 2159 people, 13.1 million animals and damages amounting to MNT 950 billion. Between 2007 and 2017, the natural disasters that affected Mongolia most frequently included forest fires (2216), strong winds (245), floods (250) and dzud (8).
Internal displacement associated with slow-onset environmental change and disasters is a complex and dynamic phenomenon. Often hard to distinguish from internal migration, displacement driven by gradually evolving environmental change is primarily a development issue.